Volume 20. Number 1

Behavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2012,

Volume 20, Number 1

Monographic issue on Emotional intelligence

20 €

Behavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2012, Volume 20, Number 1

(Monographic issue on “Emotional intelligence”)


Emotional intelligence and acculturation (pp. 15-41)

Paul G. Schmitz1 and Florian Schmitz2

1University of Bonn; 2University of Freiburg (Germany)


Previous research has shown that migrants develop various styles to adjust to a new culture. The present study was concerned with two questions: (1) Why do some migrants prefer a particular acculturation style whereas others adopt a different one, and (2) why do some migrants reveal a higher level of adjustment than others? In a sample of 349 immigrants living in Germany (199 Turks and 150 North-Africans), we investigated the influence of emotional intelligence (EI) with the Trait-Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS). Acculturation styles were assessed with the Acculturation Attitudes Scale (AAS) as well as specific markers of acculturation behavior. Adjustment was captured by the Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS), the subjective happiness scale (SHS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) as an inverse marker. Additionally, we assessed perceived unfairness and discrimination. Findings show that EI and its subcomponents are related to beneficial forms of acculturation attitudes and acculturation behavior. EI was also shown to affect acculturation experiences, such as perceived discrimination and perceived unfairness, as well as a number of psychological adjustment variables.



Emotional perception as a stable predictor of psychosocial adjustment during adolescence (pp. 43-58)

Raquel Palomera1, José Martín Salguero2, and Desiree Ruiz-Aranda2

1University of Cantabria; 2University of Malaga (Spain)


Emotions are a very valuable source of information for our adjustment and well-being. Within our skills to process the emotional information, emotional perception is fundamental to begin such process successfully. Nevertheless, the majority of the studies conducted in this area have used adult or clinical samples. In this work we investigated through a prospective one-year longitudinal study the relation between emotional perception and psycho-social adjustment in a secondary student sample. The results showed emotional perception as a stable predictor of higher personal adjustment and lower emotional imbalance and clinical maladjustment. The emotional perception ability also appeared as a significant predictor of dependent variables, even when the variable criterion at time 1 was controlled. Significant variation was found depending on sex and age. Possible educational implications and future lines of research on emotional perception and emotional intelligence are discussed.



Adolescents at socio-psychological risk: what is the role of the emotional intelligence? (pp. 59-75)

María Alicia Zavala1 and Isaura López2

1University of Guanajuato; 2La Salle Bajío University (Mexico)


The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) including its components in the disposition towards socio-psychological risk behaviors in 829 Mexican adolescents from public junior high schools located in low-income areas, aged between 13-15 years. The “Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version” (Bar-On EQ-i:YV; Bar-On y Parker, 2004) and the “Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory” (MACI; Millon, 2004) were used. Negative correlations between PEI and its components with eating disorders, substance abuse, predisposition to delinquency, predisposition to impulsiveness, feelings of anxiety, depression and suicidal tendencies were found. Multiple regression models obtained for each of the risk behaviors emphasized the influence of gender difference as a factor that varies jointly with the emotional quotient and its components in the adolescents’ disposition to the risk behaviors analyzed.



Gender differences in emotional intelligence: the mediating effect of age (pp. 77-89)

Pablo Fernández-Berrocal, Rosario Cabello, Ruth Castillo, and Natalio Extremera

University of Malaga (Spain)


Are women more emotionally intelligent than men? Today it is widely believed, among the general public and academics alike, that the female gender is linked with better knowledge of emotions. Is this notion correct or yet another stereotype? To address this question, the relationship between gender and emotional intelligence (EI), as assessed using the “Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test” (MSCEIT), is considered. A new perspective was taken in this research by controlling for age, which is one of the principal sociodemographic characteristics that interacts with gender as well as EI, in order to clarify how gender affects EI. Results showed that the gender differences initially reported for EI are mediated completely by age for the branches of facilitation and understanding, for strategic area and for total score, and partially by age for the dimension of emotional managing. These findings indicate the need for caution when concluding that gender affects EI in the absence of tests for possible interactions between gender and other variables that may influence EI.



Emotional intelligence in the portuguese academic context: validation studies of “the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire” (ESCQ) (pp. 91-102)

Luísa Faria1 and Nelson Lima-Santos2

1University of Porto; 2Fernando Pessoa University (Portugal)


This study presents the validation of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ; Taksic, 2000, 2001) in the Portuguese academic context, comparing it with the original Croatian version. It consists of 45 items divided into three subscales – Perceiving and understanding emotion, Expressing and labelling emotion, and Managing and regulating emotion. This self-report measure of emotional intelligence, based on Mayer and Salovey’s model, has already been tested in different cultures. It was administered collectively during regular academic hours to a Portuguese sample of 730 students, 381 from high-school and 349 from university. Overall, alpha values were good and similar to those of the original version (>.80), except for managing and regulating emotion (.67). Confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken to verify the factor structure of the ESCQ and revealed that the best fit model has two correlated factors (.55; perception and expression), including only 11 items from the original scale (r2> .30). Both sensibility and discriminative power proved to be satisfactory. The ESCQ revealed promising results, but further validation studies with larger samples are needed




Emotional intelligence and family environment (pp. 103-117)

Mª Trinidad Sánchez-Núñez and José Miguel Latorre Postigo

University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)


The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between self-reported and perceived emotional intelligence (EI) by the children about themselves and their parents and the family social climate. The theoretical framework is the ability model of Mayer and Salovey (1997) and self-report measures related to it. The sample is composed by 156 children (71 males and 85 females). The scale to assess the EI was the TMMS-24 (Fernandez-Berrocal, Extremera and Ramos, 2004). Also, an adaptation of the TMMS-24 (PTMMS-24) was developed to assess the children’s perception of their parents’ EI in each of the factors: Attention, Clarity and Repair. Perceived family social climate was assessed with the scale FES (Moos, Moos and Trickett, 1995). The correlation analyses show significant associations between the perceived EI of the parents and the perceived family social climate by the children. Block-stratified regression analysis of each subscale of the FES shows how both the perceived and self-reported EI are good predictors for factors such as Expressivity in the family social climate.



Perceived emotional intelligence and its relationship with adult attachment (pp. 119-135)

Mª del Carmen Aguilar-Luzón, Antonia Calvo-Salguero, and Adelaida Monteoliva-Sánchez

University of Granada (Spain)


The aim of this study was to examine the predictive role of attachment on different dimensions (emotional attention, clarity and repair) of perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) when variables such as gender and age were controlled. For this purpose, 144 university students completed the Trait-Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) and the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR). The results indicated that security in attachment, as opposed to insecurity, was related to higher scores in two of the PEI dimensions (emotional attention and clarity). These results varied depending on whether categorical or dimensional attachment measures were used, particularly when they were compared to emotional repair. The study reveals the need to consider the attachment dimensions of anxiety and avoidance, together with other variables, as PEI predictors.



Stress management as an emotional intelligence competence in students (pp. 137-149)

Marta Sáinz, Mercedes Ferrando, Daniel Hernández, María del Carmen Fernández, Carmen Ferrándiz, Rosario Bermejo, and María Dolores Prieto

University of Murcia (Spain)


This study analyzes the self-perception of stress management depending on the intelligence level (low, medium, and high) in a sample of 679 students (46.50% boys and 53.50% girls) aged between 12 and 18 years of age (M= 13.90; SD= 1.28). All the students were attending semi-private schools of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) in the community of Valencia (Spain). Stress management self-perception was assessed using the Bar-On test of Emotional intelligence (EQ-i:YV, Baron & Parker, 2000); and intelligence was assessed using the Test of Differential Attitudes (DAT-5; Bennett, Seashore & Wesman, 2000). In addition, a total of 406 parents and 103 teachers also informed about their perception of the students’ stress management using the EQ-i:YV-O (Bar-On & Parker, in press). The data show statistically significant differences in the self-perception of stress management according to the participants’ intellectual level.



Analyzing the relations among perceived emotional intelligence, affect balance and burnout (pp. 151-168)

José Mª Augusto-Landa, Esther López-Zafra, M. Pilar Berrios-Martos, and Manuel Pulido-Martos

University of Jaen (Spain)


The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) and Affect balance (positive and negative) along with their impact in the prediction of the burnout syndrome in a Spanish sample of primary school teachers. Furthermore, a model of relations using structural equation modeling (SEM) analyzing the predictive role of both PEI components and Affect on burnout dimensions is proposed. A sample of 251 teachers completed a set of questionnaires that included the variables of interest. Results show that the model proposed accounts for 37% of the variance in emotional exhaustion, 57% of the variance in depersonalization and 67% of the variance of personal accomplishment. Putting all variables together, the model explained 80% of the latent burnout variable. The implications and limitations of the study are explained.



Perceived emotional intelligence and involvement in several kinds of bullying (pp. 169-181)

Paz Elipe1, Rosario Ortega2, Simon C. Hunter3, and Rosario del Rey4

1University of Jaen; 2University of Cordoba (Spain); 3University of Strathclyde (United King); 4University of Sevilla (Spain)


The emotional intelligence construct has been introduced in recent years to the field of educational psychology. However, only a few researches have examined this topic in relation to social relationship dynamics in school contexts. Some previous studies have shown that meta-mood about one’s own emotions, perceived emotional intelligence (PEI), can distinguish students involved in bullying from those not involved. Specifically, this study aims to look further into this issue by focusing on cyberbullying situations where bullying is mediated by the use of information and communication technologies. Participants were 5759 adolescent students from Andalucia (South of Spain). The results show that PEI can discriminate between the roles young people play in traditional bullying but not for cyberbullying. These results are discussed according to possible differences in emotional management across bullying and cyberbullying.



Resilient coping strategies and emotion regulation: predictors of life satisfaction (pp. 183-196)

Joaquín T. Limonero1, Joaquín Tomás-Sábado2, Jordi Fernández-Castro1, Mª José Gómez-Romero3, and Amor Ardilla-Herrero2

1Autonoma University of Barcelona; 2Gimbernat Nursing School; 3Egarsat (Spain)


This study was designed with two objectives: (1) analyse the relationship between resilience (resilient coping strategies) and life satisfaction; and (2) examine whether this relationship is moderated or mediated by perceived emotion regulation. A sample of 254 undergraduate psychology students completed the Perceived Emotional Repair (REP) subscale of the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS-24), the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The finding showed that people with high scores in BRCS had higher levels of REP and SWLS. Moreover, it was observed that those students who had both high levels of BRCS and REP had higher SWLS. Results revealed a positive correlation between BRCS scores, SWLS and REP. The results do not support the idea of a possible mediating and moderating effect of emotional regulation in the relationship found between resilience and life satisfaction. Implication of these results for life satisfaction and how people cope with adverse or stressful situations are discussed.



I feel sad, what can I do? Analyses of mood regulation strategies used by emotionally intelligent people (pp. 197-209)

Natalio Extremera, Vanesa González-Herero, Pilar Rueda, and Pablo Fernández-Berrocal

University of Malaga (Spain)


The main aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and effectiveness of mood-regulation strategies that people use when they feel sad, and to examine how these mood-regulation strategies are associated with the emotion management subscale of an EI ability measure, and with depression symptoms. The sample was composed of 400 participants. The measures used were the Self Regulating Strategies of Mood Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the subscale of Emotion Management of the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Results showed that the most effective strategy to regulate sadness was “call, talk to, or be with someone”. Higher scores in emotional management were associated with lower scores in depression, as well as the use of different mood-regulation strategies to reduce sadness. Moreover, the emotion management subscale accounted for some of the variance in depression beyond mood-regulation strategies. Finally, the implications of these findings are discussed.



Emotional intelligence and sense of humor as predictors of subjective well-being (pp. 211-227)

M. Pilar Berrios-Martos, Manuel Pulido-Martos, José María Augusto-Landa, and Esther López-Zafra

University of Jaen (Spain)


The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Sense of Humor (SH) and their predictive ability on two dimensions of subjective well-being: Psychological Subjective Well-being (PSW) and Material Subjective Well-being (MSW). Previous studies have noted a relationship between these constructs and emotional intelligence but separately. A total of 113 participants between 18 and 27 years (M= 19.6, SD= 3.9), have completed an ability measure of EI, a questionnaire about SH and a subjective well-being scale. Our results show that the creating humor, appreciation of humor and use of humor in coping with problems predict the PSW, whereas the appreciation of humor and emotion management predicted the MSW. Our study contributes to knowledge in two important aspects: first, we found that the SH and EI have an impact on the subjective well-being, and secondly, it also provides empirical evidence about the differential effect of the components of the SH and the IE on the PSW and the MSW.